Vespro della Beata Vergine plainchant Deus in adiutorium [1:02] Annibale PADOVANO(1527-1575) Toccata del 8° tono* [3:48] Adriaen WILLAERT(1490 - 1562) Benedicta es - Per illud a 7 [7:05] Ricercar I a 4* [4:35] Jachet DE MANTUA(1483-1559)/Adriaen WILLAERT Dixit Dominus a 8 [6:31] Adriaen WILLAERT Laudate pueri a 8 [3:54] Ricercar I a 3* [5:18] Jachet DE MANTUA/Adriaen
WILLAERT Laetatus sum a 4 [6:50] Nisi Dominus a 4 [5:22] Adriaen WILLAERT Ricercar VII a 3* [4:12] Lauda Jerusalem a 8 [4:45] Ave maris stella a 6 [7:42] Ricercar X a 4* [5:15] Magnificat a 4 [8:27] Benedicamus in laude Jesu a 4 [1:34] Annibale PADOVANO Toccata del 3° e 4° tono* [2:59]
Capilla Flamenca/(Rob Cuppens, Marnix De Cat (alto), Jan Caals,
Tore Denys, Govaart Haché, Laurens Wyns (tenor), Lieven Termont
(baritone), Dirk Snellings (bass)) Joris Verdin (organ)*/Dirk Snellings
rec. February 2012, Chapel of the Zusters van Sint Vincentius, Gijzegem,
Belgium and March 2012 at the Basilica di San Petronio, Bologna,
RICERCAR RIC 325 [79:30]
If I am not mistaken Paul McCreesh was one of the first to perform
Italian sacred music from around 1600 in the form of liturgical
reconstructions. His 'Venetian Coronation Mass' recorded in
1989 was groundbreaking. Only recently he recorded such a 'remaking'
His example has been copied by others.
This disc also contains a kind of liturgical reconstruction.
It concentrates on Adriaen Willaert, a Venetian composer who
is somewhat overshadowed by the Gabrielis and in particular
by Claudio Monteverdi. He was highly respected in his time though
he laid the foundation of the cori spezzati practice
which would become one of the hallmarks of liturgical music
There is no Vespro della Beata Vergine in Willaert's
oeuvre, comparable with the famous Monteverdi 1610 Vespers.
A collection of 1555 includes a Vespro della Madonna,
though, and one wonders why the Capilla Flamenca didn't choose
this piece to record if they wanted to present Willaert's music
in its liturgical context. The Vespers followed a strict formal
pattern: they opened with the verse Deus in adiutorium,
which was followed by five Vesper Psalms, a reading of a lesson
or capitulum, a hymn, the Magnificat with antiphon
and prayers and ended with Benedicamus Domino. There’s
no complete Vesper liturgy on offer on this disc.
In the Vespers the Psalms and the Magnificat are embraced by
antiphons. These are absent from this recording. Before the
first Psalm we hear the motet Benedicta es - Per illud ave.
The liner-notes don't explain why this piece has been included
or why it is put before the first Psalm. It was quite common
to sing a motet instead of the repeat of the antiphon after
a Psalm, but since no antiphons are sung here, that wouldn't
make any sense. The inclusion of organ pieces also raises questions.
Katelijne Schiltz, in her liner-notes, writes that "[in] contrast
to Monteverdi's setting of the Vespro della Beata Vergine,
an extensive collection of instruments was not used during the
middle of the 16th century. The organ was certainly employed,
but did not accompany the choirs, who most probably sang a cappella".
She doesn't explain what exactly the organ's role in the Vesper
liturgy was. There seems to be little connection between the
organ pieces and the vocal works. That is only emphasized by
the fact that they are recorded in different venues.
Let's concentrate on the music. The programme opens with the
verse Deus in adiutorium, sung here in faux-bourdon
style. This is followed by a toccata by Annibale Padovano. He
was organist at San Marco from 1552 to 1565 and is particularly
important to the development of the form of the toccata. While
in Venice he was probably also a pupil of Willaert. The latter's
motet Benedicta es is in two parts, the second beginning
with the words "Per illud ave prolatum". It is scored for seven
voices and is a typical specimen of the Franco-Flemish school.
It has a dense structure and is strictly polyphonic, without
passages of homophony, and includes a three-part canon. There
is little connection between text and music and the motet is
characterised by a continuous flow which is only interrrupted
between the first and second section.
The liner-notes are a little confusing in their comments on
the Vesper Psalms. It is explained that they can be divided
into two groups. On the one hand we have the salmi con sue
risposte: the verses are separated by a caesura and are
sung in turn by the two choirs. The first choir consists of
solo voices, the second has more than one voice per part. It
needs to be noted that the latter aspect is ignored in this
recording: the second 'choir' also comprises just four voices.
The three Vesper Psalms in this category are Dixit Dominus,
Laetatus sum and Nisi Dominus. They are the fruit
of a collaboration between Willaert and his colleague Jachet
de Mantua: the latter wrote the music for the first choir, whereas
Willaert composed the music for the second. Jachet was of French
origin and one of the most widely published composers of his
time. The problem is that the latter two Psalms are not for
eight voices, but for four. Therefore they can't be divided
into two choirs. There is no objection to the verses being sung
in turn by the two 'choirs', but was that required by the composers?
And who composed which verses?
Laudate pueri and Lauda Jerusalem are of the second
type, called salmi spezzati. The choirs again sing the
verses alternately, but here there is some overlap: one choir
still sings the final cadence when the other choir begins the
following verse. In the 6-part Ave maris stella and in
the Magnificat and Benedicamus in laude, the latter
two for four voices, we hear the practice of alternatim
singing: the verses are alternately in plainchant and polyphonic.
This is one of the oldest practices in liturgical music.
Capilla Flamenca is one of the best vocal ensembles around,
and we get here very polished performances. The voices blend
perfectly, and there is also a great deal of transparency which
makes the text clearly understandable. This is especially important
as the Council of Trent expressed the need to make sure that
the faithful were able to hear the text in liturgical music.
This could probably also explain why in this kind of music no
instruments were used to double the voices.
Although we are left in the dark as far as the function of the
organ pieces is concerned, one can only admire Joris Verdin's
performances, and even more the beautiful historical instruments
in the Basilica di San Petronio of Bologna, dating from 1471-75
and 1531 respectively.
The booklet includes the lyrics, but without English translations.
The translations of the Psalms can easily be found in the Bible,
and an internet search pretty quickly leads to translations
of the other texts. Even so, it is not as it should be: a booklet
should provide the listener with at least English translations
of non-English texts. In Dixit Dominus the largest part
of the doxology has been left out.
The English translation of the liner-notes includes an annoying
error. Here we read that composers "were required to distance
themselves from the age-old Gregorian chants with their unison
melodies". This is nonsense, and the result of a wrong translation
of the original Dutch text. In fact Ms Schiltz writes that composers
needed to use the Gregorian chants as a starting point. Only
then the next sentence makes sense: "The composers' skills were
applied to the integration of these fixed requirements into
a polyphonic frame (...)".
From a musical point of view this is an excellent release. This
great repertoire which has hardly been explored as yet, receives
exemplary performances. The whole reconstruction thing should
be taken with a spoon of salt, though.
Johan van Veen
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