Johann David HEINICHEN(1683-1729)
Overture in G (S 206) [14:40] Christoph GRAUPNER(1683-1760)
Overture for 3 chalumeaux, strings and bc in C (GWV 409) [20:27]
Johann Friedrich FASCH(1688-1758)
Overture for two orchestras in B flat (FWV K,B1) [22:47] Johann Gottlieb GRAUN(1703-1771)
Overture in d minor [08:05]
Hans Rudolf Stalder, Heinz Hofer, Elmar Schmid (chalumeau) (Graupner)
Cappella Coloniensis/Hans-Martin Linde
rec. 9 November 1987, 18 May 1988, Kulturzentrum in Lindlar; 26
January 1991, Kurtheater in Bad Oeynhausen
PHOENIX 173 [66:03]
It is admirable that the German label Phoenix is releasing recordings
from the archives of the German radio channel WDR3 in Cologne.
Some of them have been previously released by another German
label, Capriccio. It would have been even better, if the production
had been more careful. The recording date of the Fasch Overture
is not given, the date of the Graupner is printed as 26.012991
which I have interpreted as 26 January 1991, but your guess
is as good as mine. And on top of it the liner-notes are not
particularly informative and partly speculative.
I had expected the author of the liner-notes to explain, for
instance, that all four compositions are called 'Overture',
but that Graun's Overture is fundamentally different from the
other three. The Overtures by Heinichen, Graupner and Fasch
are written in the tradition of the French-style overture-suite,
which was very popular in Germany in the first half of the 18th
century. It was modelled after the overtures of the French opera
composer Jean-Baptiste Lully, although he would probably not
have recognized them as French. They are called 'overture' after
the first movement which is always in ABA form. It is followed
by a series of dance movements and 'airs'.
The most traditional scoring of this kind of Overtures was strings
and bc, with two oboes and bassoon. That is the scoring of the
Overture in G by Johann David Heinichen. In his liner-notes
Benjamin Ivry writes: "Heinichen received a law degree from
Leipzig University, which may account for the sometimes acerbic,
willful edge to his melodies, as well as their rhetorical mastery".
I don't see what the law degree has to do with the character
of Heinichen's music, whose description is questionable anyway.
Mastery of rhetoric is nothing exceptional: all German composers
of that time had been thoroughly taught in musical rhetoric,
as this was one of the basics of musical composition. Heinichen
was, like Christoph Graupner, a pupil of Johann Kuhnau, the
Leipzig Thomaskantor until his death in 1722. He was
one of Germany's most acclaimed music teachers, so that is where
both got it from.
It is another mark of this production that only in Graupner's
case is the scoring given. Here we have a piece without oboes
and bassoon. The strings are joined by three chalumeaux - the
liner-notes don't even mention them. The chalumeau is often
described as the predecessor of the clarinet, but that isn't
quite true. In a serenade by Telemann, for instance, both instruments
appear alongside each other. Telemann was one of the first who
wrote for the chalumeau, and the instrument also frequently
appears in music by Graupner. The role of the three chalumeaux
in this Overture is different from that of the oboes and the
bassoon in Heinichen's Overture. The latter play mostly colla
parte with the violins, and are only used as solo instruments
in the B sections of the bourrée and rigaudon. The chalumeaux
in Graupner's Overture are true solo instruments which play
the central role in the whole work.
Like Graupner Johann Friedrich Fasch was considered one of Germany's
leading composers in the first half of the 18th century. And
like Heinichen and Graupner he had been a pupil of Kuhnau in
Leipzig. For two years he worked in Dresden, where he met Heinichen
again, who was Kapellmeister at the court. Like Telemann
Fasch wrote a large number of orchestral overtures. This Overture
in B flat is notable for its scoring for two instrumental groups.
The strings are joined here by two oboes and two bassoons, divided
over the two orchestras.
Lastly, Johann Gottlieb Graun. He was one of two brothers; the
other being Carl Heinrich. The latter was mainly known for his
vocal music, in particular his operas, and his oratorio Der
Tod Jesu. Johann Gottlieb composed mainly instrumental music,
although it isn't always possible to be sure which of the two
is the composer: they mostly signed their works with 'Graun',
without Christian name. As already indicated, the piece played
here may be called 'Overture', but it is quite different from
the other Overtures. It consists of two movements without tempo
indication. The first is in two sections: slow - fast. The fast
section is by far the longest, and towards the end Graun returns
briefly to the slow first section. But it is certainly no dacapo,
so the structure of this movement is not ABA as in the traditional
overtures. The second movement is again in a fast tempo. This
Overture is much more like an Italian opera overture, and stylistically
it belongs to another era. That is also reflected by the inclusion
of two horn parts in the scoring. Horns were seldom used in
baroque music, but in the second quarter of the 18th century
they were becoming more and more a standard part of the orchestra.
This disc is commendable mainly because of the repertoire. The
recordings are about twenty years old, and that shows. Furthermore,
Hans-Martin Linde - originally a recorder player - has never
been the most flamboyant of conductors, and sometimes the performances
are a bit awkward, for instance the first movement of Heinichen's
Overture in G. In comparison the recording of a number of Heinichen's
concertos by Musica antiqua Köln (Archiv, 1992) is a lot
better. But Fasch and Graun are well done, and the Overture
by Graupner is really worthwhile, in particular because of the
contribution of the three chalumeaux.
All in all, this is a nice disc to listen to and it is good
that these recordings are available again, even though the performances
are not top notch. If only Phoenix had been more careful.
Johan van Veen
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