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Frohlocke nun!(Rejoice Now!)-
Christmas music from Berlin between Baroque and Romanticism Carl Philipp Emanuel BACH
(1714-1788) Meine Seele erhebet den Herren (H deest) [10:00] Carl Heinrich GRAUN (1703/04-1759) Kommt Christen, feiert dieses Fest [18:09] Johann Friedrich AGRICOLA (1720-1774) Kündlich groß ist das gottselige Geheimnis [16:09]
Carl Friedrich ZELTER(1758-1832) Wachet auf, ruft uns die Stimme [07:19] Johann Friedrich REICHARDT(1752-1814) Weihnachts-Cantilene:
Holdseliger, gebenedeiter Knabe [02:39] Carl LOEWE(1796-1869) Die Festzeiten, oratorio op. 66: Advent [03:38]; Weihnachten
[05:47] Felix MENDELSSOHN-BARTHOLDY (1809-1847) Christus, oratorio (unfinished): Die Geburt Christi [06:10]
Chmelensky (treble); Olivia Vermeulen (contralto); Jan Kobow Patrick
Vogel (tenor); Matthias Vieweg (bass)
Staats- und Domchor Berlin, Lautten Compagney Berlin/Kai-Uwe Jirka
rec. 7-10 January 2009, Jesus-Christus-Kirche, Berlin-Dahlem
CARUS 83.442 [70:40]
German early 18th century music we hear today was mostly composed
in Leipzig, Hamburg, Frankfurt or Darmstadt or at one of the many
aristocratic courts - seldom in Berlin. It is only with composers
like the brothers Graun, Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach and Quantz
that Berlin enters the picture. Although Berlin was a dominantly
protestant city there was little or no interest in religious music
as it was performed on a regular basis in for instance Leipzig
or Hamburg. And Christmas had turned from an ecclesiastical feast
into an almost secular celebration for the bourgeoisie. This disc
presents some music which according to Christian Filips in his
programme notes was performed in Berlin. The first three items
are from the archive of the Berlin Singakademie which was rediscovered
in Kiev in 1999. That in itself doesn't prove that these works
were indeed performed in Berlin, but it is certainly possible.
The disc opens with a piece by Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach - his
contribution to a pasticcio. It dates from his time in Hamburg,
when he had already left Berlin. It begins with a chorus, which
is an arrangement of the opening movement of his own Magnificat
which he probably had written for his application as Thomaskantor
in Leipzig in 1750. Here he uses a German text rather than the
original Latin text. The other parts of this cantata are set to
a free poetic text, as the next section which is a chorus: "God
cares for thee, how can anything afflict thee?" Then follows
an aria for alto, which - like most arias on this disc - is clearly
operatic and includes a cadenza. The rest of this cantata was
written by someone with the name of Hoffmann, and who as yet has
not been otherwise identified. His contribution has been omitted
which is really a shame.
Next is a cantata by Carl Heinrich Graun, one of the Graun brothers
who were active at the court in Berlin. Carl Heinrich was the
opera composer and that is noticeable in this cantata in which
the recitatives are set to an orchestral accompaniment. The cantata,
which is written for the first Christmas day, opens with a recitativo
accompagnato for tenor which is followed by a chorus in da
capo form. The bass then sings a recitative followed by an
aria in which the strings are joined by a trumpet and timpani.
A recitative-aria pair for alto is followed by another recitative
for the tenor and the cantata closes with a chorale. No biblical
texts are used.
Things are different in the cantata 'Kündlich groß
ist das gottselige Geheimnis' by Johann Friedrich Agricola. It
dates from 1758 and was commissioned by the court. The opening
chorus is based on a verse from Paul's first letter to Timothy:
"Manifested is the divine mystery: God is revealed in flesh".
It is followed by a long secco recitative for alto and bass and
an alto aria which is purely operatic in style and includes a
cadenza. It is not quite a da capo aria any more: after
the B section only the instrumental introduction to the A section
is repeated. A recitative for soprano and bass is then followed
by a chorus on the opening verse of the Magnificat. Here Agricola
adds a concertante organ part. The tenor then has a full da
capo aria which starts with the line "Rise, fall, flow
around" which is illustrated in the vocal part. The cantata
closes with the last stanza of a traditional Christmas chorale:
Puer natus in Bethlehem.
Carl Friedrich Zelter had been a member of the Berlin Singakademie
since 1791 and became its conductor in 1800. 'Wachet auf, ruft
uns die Stimme' is one of a series of chorale arrangements he
composed in 1802. It is an intriguing mixture of old and new.
In the first stanza which is homophonic, the original melody is
clearly audible but Zelter sometimes turns away from it in order
to illustrate passages in the text. On "Erwacht!" (awake)
the original melody moves downward whereas Zelter writes an ascending
figure. The harmonic language of this stanza is reflecting the
aesthetics of the time. But the second stanza is set as an arioso
for tenor with a basso continuo part which wouldn't be out of
place in a baroque cantata or oratorio. The last stanza is set
for choir and soloists; the first half we hear the cantus firmus
in the basses and the basso continuo. The piece closes
with a fugue, another relic of the baroque era. It should be added
that the text Zelter uses was written by the poet Klopstock; only
elements of the original text of 1599 have been preserved.
Johann Friedrich Reichardt composed a number of dramatic works
but also many songs on texts by poets like Gleim, Goethe and Schiller.
The aria 'Holdseliger, gebenedeiter Knabe' for soprano and instruments
comes from a choral work entitled 'Weihnachts-Cantilene' which
dates from 1786.
With the music by Loewe and Mendelssohn-Bartholdy we have entered
the romantic era. Each tried to revive the traditional German
oratorio. 'Die Festtage' by Carl Loewe is a compilation of previously
written cantatas on texts from the gospel of St John. Here two
excerpts are performed: the instrumental introduction to Advent
and the annunciation scene from the Christmas part. The tenor
acts as the Evangelist and then the choir sings the chorus of
the angels: "Glory to God in the highest". During this
chorus the chorale 'Vom Himmel hoch' is used as cantus firmus.
Mendelssohn planned an oratorio on the life of Christ, like Handel's
Messiah, but due to his death it remained unfinished. We
hear the recitative for soprano 'Da Jesus geboren war', the trio
'Wo ist der neugeborne König der Juden' and the chorus 'es
wird ein Stern aus Jakob aufgehn'.
All pieces on this disc, with the exception of the fragments from
Christus, are recorded here for the first time. It is very
interesting to hear sacred music for Christmastide from a region
in Germany which is better known for its orchestral and chamber
music. That was the repertoire mostly played at the court of Frederick
the Great. The operas performed in Berlin at the time are another
aspect of musical life in Berlin from around 1750. They have hardly
been explored at all.
As far as the sacred music is concerned the cantatas by Graun
and Agricola - who translated Pier Francesco Tosi's famous treatise
on singing in German - are interesting. They suggest that it will
be worthwhile further to explore their sacred oeuvre. I also was
intrigued by Carl Loewe, who today is best-known for his songs
with piano. The fragments of his oratorio Die Festzeiten have
made me curious about this work. I would like to hear the whole
Apart from the quality of the programme it is the level of the
performance which makes this disc recommendable. The Staats- und
Domchor Berlin which consists of boys and men is not among the
best-known choirs in Germany, but here it demonstrates its considerable
qualities. The choruses are very well sung and in several of them
members of the choir also sing small solo parts. Dennis Chmelensky
is a member of this choir; in 2008 he won the German youth music
competition 'Jugend musiziert'. He has a nice voice, although
I was surprised at the amount of vibrato he uses. He would do
well to discard it. He sings a couple of recitatives and the solo
part in Reichardt's 'Holdseliger, gebenedeiter Knabe'.
The alto, the tenors and the bass give fine performances also.
I was a bit surprised that in the oratorio by Loewe the tenor
part is sung by Patrick Vogel rather than Jan Kobow. I would have
preferred the latter, even though Patrick Vogel sings his part
well. The orchestra does a good job here too, but I want to know
whether there has been a change of instruments from the 18th-century
to the 19th-century repertoire.
From a historical perspective there are some question marks about
the performance of the tutti parts. Was a choir used in the cantatas
by Graun and Agricola. Were these originally performed with one
voice per part, as seems to have been the case in many cities
in Germany in Bach's and Telemann's time? The end of the 18th
century saw the birth of the choir as we know it, and one of the
specimens of this kind was the Berlin Singakademie. It was founded
in 1791 and consisted of members of the bourgeoisie. The mother
of Felix Mendelssohn joined the choir in 1796, so we may conclude
that it was a mixed choir. Historically speaking the performance
of the late 18th century and the 19th century repertoire with
an all-male choir is dubious practice.
These considerations apart this is a very good recording which
is especially commendable to those who look for good but less
familiar repertoire for Christmastide.
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