VII. Conclusion: Martinů’s
Looking back on his Paris years before
the Nazi invasion forced him to flee,
Martinů wrote: “Liberté! Now we
discovered that it is not freely available,
but that it must be fought for.
I, personally, had always had to pay
a price for my freedom, but it was my
small, private freedom."
For Martinů, it was the decision
to remain in Paris that represented
this sacrifice and risk. He arrived
penniless, with the daunting task before
him of establishing
a reputation from the ground up, with
few contacts or concrete prospects for
the future. Paris nonetheless opened
a whole new world before him, and as
Šafránek observed, “The very air breathed
liberty. Suddenly Martinů felt
art, influenced by the Parisian musical
milieu, experienced a drastic re-orientation,
or, better yet, a series of them. The
experience of Paris brought about a
rapid and decisive self-reckoning for
the composer. As a child of the nineteenth
and a late bloomer, Martinů was
forced to reconcile early training and
tendencies with new approaches. He also
had to sort out the myriad musical styles
prevalent around him. For Martinů,
Paris indeed represented “a turning
point and a radical one",
as the composer later recalled, adding
that "I began to find my bearings
in to the chaos into which I had plunged
in Paris, that is, I began really to
think about it."
He elaborated upon this in a biography
printed in the Boston Symphony Orchestra
program notes for performances of his
La Bagarre and La Symphonie.
It is a fascinating self-portrait of
studied as a violinist at the Conservatory
of Music at Prague, where his teacher
in composition was Josef Suk. As
a young composer, he was not attracted
by the Czech school of writing,
which was influenced by the German,
with its rather clumsy romanticism;
he was favorably disposed towards
the French on account of its respect
for form, its clarity and purity
of expression. Alone among Czech
composers, he passed through the
struggles and evolution of impressionism.
Debussy at first influenced him
greatly; later, always searching
after new manners of expression,
he went to Paris for lessons from
Roussel (1924). His sojourn there
enlightened him. He at once sided
with the most "modern"
of the composers, was enthusiastic
over Stravinsky, championed him,
and made him known in Czechoslovakia.
He gradually freed himself from
this influence and came back to
the Czech spirit as exemplified
by Smetana and Dvorak. He especially
acquired confidence, technical facility,
sense of form, orchestral mastery.
The rhythmic element, always sustained
and new, that distinguishes his
works, recalls Dvorak--but is enriched
by the modern experiences and experiments.
Thus he passed in his creation of
melodic expression to polyphonic
complexity based on new musical
conceptions, but in a clear and
expressive manner. In his recent
works he shows a leaning towards
neo-classicism derived from the
modernisme of today.
Although written in the
late 20’s, this quote could very well
date from a decade later, demonstrating
Martinů had already embarked by
this time upon a very certain and increasingly
consistent path. The biographical sketch
seems to emphasize Martinů’s cosmopolitan
approach, with the exception of course
of German “metaphysics”. Most striking
is his self-described
uniqueness with regard to following
Debussy’s lead, which he clearly regards
as a bold early step towards independence,
despite the fact that Suk was also experimenting
in this realm. Martinů credits
Paris with enlightening him, but interestingly
this is already in the past tense. He
also takes pains to ally himself with
the most modern of composers, mentioning
only Stravinsky by name, but is careful
to point out his gradual weaning from
this influence as well. Czechness gets
it due, perhaps more
than expected, and jazz is inferred
by the phrase “modern experiences and
experiments”. This is worth emphasizing,
because as this study has shown, Martinů’s
approach to rhythm involved a synthesis
of patterns inspired by jazz and Czech
folk music. Martinů
refers to the process as “enrichment”,
and this seems particularly apt. He
also links this idea of a “sustained
and new” rhythmic approach with a tendency
towards polyphonic complexity and the
stylistic trends of neoclassicism, both
of which were observed
in relation to the rhythmic component
in chapter two. Above all, the quotation
echoes the composer’s remarkably flexible
approach to the dizzying array of methods,
styles, languages and –isms that
could be heard in the French capital.
Folk stylizations, jazz rhythms, Stravinskian
ostinati, quotes of Svatý
Václave, soothing diatonicism,
grating dissonance - all seem to come
and go with apparent ease
in Martinů’s oeuvre depending upon
the work the composer has in mind and
its expressive intent.
Indeed, Martinu’s music of the twenties
could well be seen as a chaotic art,
with many voices striving to be heard
and developed in various ways. Rarely
does the composer settle into a pattern,
seeming rather to address a different
problem or challenge with each work.
Examples worth citing in this regard
include the wedding of the Charleston
with folk song in the finale of the
Revue de Cuisine, the adoption
of Svatý Václave
into a rhythmically charged atmosphere
to represent the fervor of the crowd
in La Bagarre, and the battle
for dominance between folk and jazz
dance rhythms in his Trois danses
tchèques for solo piano.
Although one is certainly
the experimental nature of Martinů’s
early Paris works, as an overall representative
of the avant-garde Martinů’s status
remains unclear, despite his assertions
in the quote above. He certainly disdained
innovation for its own sake, echoing
when writing in 1928 that "modern
music cannot allow for everything, as
it is contended. The increased number
of means and possibilities does not
mean an increase in latitude. The more
freedom there is, the more discipline
is necessary." Ironically,
this statement emerged at the very same
time as many of Martinů’s most
avant-garde tendencies are only now
beginning to be seriously addressed.
Both Šafránek and Large, Martinů’s
chief biographers, downplayed their
importance, and the climate of Czech
scholarship behind the iron curtain
was also not favorably disposed to exploring
these more renegade aspects of Martinů’s
oeuvre, so devoid of a “healthy” sense
of nationalism. Recent recordings and
by the Bohuslav Martinů Institute
in Prague, however, have done much to
redress the situation and provide a
more balanced view of the composer.
The unsmiling, negativistic qualities
of some of these experimental works
show a very different side of the composer.
Jazz rhythms become a metaphor for a
bankrupt way of life or outrageous moral
values (Les trois souhaits, Les Larmes
du couteau), or are transformed
into a hard, driving force in such works
as the relentless La Fantaisie
for two pianos, which unifies popular
dance with steely, percussive, "machine
At the same time, though,
Martinů often employs jazz with
a very light touch, capturing feelings
of optimism and joie
de vivre as
in the ballet La Revue de cuisine.
Such an approach was not necessarily
less avant-garde, considering the prominence
of wit and irony in the musical language
of 1920’s Paris. At
the time jazz and dance were inseparable
of course, so it made perfect sense
to incorporate the idiom into ballet.
Martinů’s sense of humor and irony
also plays a crucial role in the Trois
as he rags the polka
in a piece that does everything rhythmically
to undermine its title. In a fascinating
collision of aesthetic values, Martinů’s
folk heritage, brought with him from
Czechoslovakia, now had to contend with
the rhythms of the dance hall representing
the urban "folk".
has been demonstrated throughout this
study, Martinů delighted in exploring
such dichotomies. Indeed, his image
as an avant-gardist on the one hand
is balanced by an equally cultivated,
consciously naďve persona on the
other, with Orientalism or simplified
folk stylization providing the impetus
for such works as the ballets The
Butterfly That Stamped
Here, Martinů’s interest in fairy
tales and the world of children produces
works of charming simplicity, deliberately
flying in the face of modernist trends.
Martinů’s use of pastoral style
as a contrast to (and metaphorical refuge
from) surrounding passages of great
intensity and dynamism also belongs
to this category, though in such works
it clashes directly with the composer’s
more modern persona.
The search for a progressive
chronology proves beside the point in
such cases; indeed, the two ballets
above, composed in 1926 and 1932, make
odd bookends for works pushing the avant-garde
envelope such as Les Trois souhaits
the Sonata No. 1 for violin in piano,
both written in 1929. This is merely
one instance in which the search for
a linear development in Martinů’s
style proves to be a dubious undertaking.
the operatic masterpiece from 1937,
has its roots in the
surrealistic operas of the late 20’s,
and could well have been composed in
their style had Martinů chosen
to do so. So, in a similar fashion,
does a seemingly isolated work such
as the Divertimento for piano left-hand
from 1926 look forward to the simplified
style of Špalíček
and the neo-classical Serenades of the
early thirties. What can be noted with
certainty, however, is the fact that
many of Martinů’s most adventurous
works from the twenties never made it
to the theater or concert hall, and
thus critics and audiences remained
unaware of this most remarkable aspect
of the composer’s work. Martinů
was no doubt discouraged by this lack
of interest, and as the use of popular
dance rhythms often featured in his
most adventurous works became increasingly
passé, the practical need
to emphasize other approaches became
complex from an aesthetic standpoint
is Martinů’s relationship to nationalism.
In a review discussing
Richard Taruskin’s article on the subject
in the New Grove Dictionary of Music
and Musicians, Charles Rosen writes
that "ironic alienation is part
of the normal process in the creation
of a nationalist style."
He might well have mentioned Martinů
as an example, a classic case in this
context if ever there was one. For there
is more than a hint of irony behind
Martinů leaving Prague for Paris
in order to discover what it meant to
be - and become - a “Czech” composer.
Martinů’s music also gives credence
to the idea; the first substantial work
written in Paris, the
Quartet for clarinet, horn and side
drum, treats Svatý Václave
in just this ironic context, dissecting
it into fragments and making of them
objective "cellules" in a
musical collage. Also relevant here
is the playful battle for dominance
between polka rhythms by jazz patterns
in the Trois danses tchèques.
In these and other works of the period
Martinů is playing out his ambivalence
towards nationalism, or at least subjecting
the material to a more consciously modern
There is more than a hint
of irony as well in the fact that the
French (as well
as Europe in general) clearly saw Martinů
first as a Czech, while the Czechs deridingly
labeled him as “French”. As late as
1940 Paul Nettl expressed the Czech
point of view, with the familiar hint
of a negative subtext: “Bohuslav Martinů,
influenced by Les
Six and Stravinsky, has become almost
a Frenchman, so zealously has he thrown
himself open to foreign influences."
Šafránek points out, “this classification
of ‘French’ tagged Martinů for
a long time and was the source of many
of his spiritual struggles,
for at heart he was completely a Czech."
Martinů echoed these sentiments
in the following observation quoted
from “Something about that ‘French’
If lightness appears in my work,
aha, there is that [French] influence,
if it is the color of the sound,
we then see how a Czech composer
can be ‘influenced.’ You recognize
that all of this is essentially
childish. But what is no longer
childish is when each composition
is searched for the extent to which
I ‘saved’ myself from this influence,
[or] how I lost or found my expression
such that I abandoned or am abandoning
Martinů elaborates upon the point
in a subsequent paragraph that he later
crossed out, but the idea is significant
nonetheless. Here, Martinů puts
forth the idea that nationalism and
cosmopolitanism not mutually exclusive:
Furthermore, the Czech
I brought to France were not destroyed,
but on the contrary supported and
enhanced through maturity and were
brought into an organic order, which,
if I am not mistaken, follows only
that line which Smetana and Dvořák
This complements Martinů’s
assertion elsewhere in his writings
that “If we are talking about tradition,
what I want to say here is that tradition
is not something “stable” - a new work
can come that will be different yet
it will still be Czech. There is no
prescription for how
it should or should not be."
Reflecting this open-ended approach,
elsewhere Martinů then defends
an experimental approach to nationalism,
even referring to such an approach as
necessary, observing that “it is not
a moment of great, isolated works (of
which there were
very few in the entire history anyway),
it is a moment of preparation, of searching,
of straightening out the terrain for
those who are coming."
is clear from all of this that Martinů
was profoundly aware of his Czech heritage
cultivated musical nationalism as a
viable and meaningful tradition, while
at the same time experimenting with
different possible manifestations. Martinů’s
view towards nationalism was above all
flexible, and anything but codified.
On a practical level
he undoubtedly hoped to take advantage
of his origins, and that his identity
as a Czech would help him find a niche,
as was the case with Bartók and
Stravinsky. This was not a simple task,
for even though the French had proven
their love for the exotic, they had
also become spoiled by an embarrassment
of riches during the teens and twenties
with the unprecedented influx of artists
from all corners of Europe and America;
a Czech musician in their midst was
hardly guaranteed to make waves simply
because of his national origin.
also faced an uphill battle back at
home. The Czechs did not at first appreciate
the composer’s determination to pursue
his own path, resenting his defection
to Paris and declaring his music superficial
and derivative of Debussy and later
Stravinsky. However, Martinů’s
reputation in his homeland eventually
grew considerably, thanks in large part
to his nationally conceived contributions
to the Czech theater written in a consciously
simplified, accessible style. In these
works he tried to develop a identifiably
national style that would assuage his
disparagers without succumbing to the
mock-heroic style he detested. That
he succeeded remarkably in this endeavor
is reflected in his garnering the Smetana
Prize for his orchestral La Rhapsodie
and the ballet Špalíček,
both works possessing overt national
content. How ironic then that Julietta,
a complex surrealistic opera based upon
a French play, should cap Martinů’s
theatrical career in Czechoslovakia
with a triumphant series of performances
at the National
compositions specifically designed for
the Czech audience, Martinů cultivated
more “cosmopolitan” works. Despite the
national element being relatively sublimated
in these works, they are nonetheless
frequently discussed in terms of Czechness
by reviewers. With such works Martinů
slowly found success abroad as well,
and the following samples of contemporary
reviews are very typical of the Martinů
criticism that emerged during his Parisian
sojourn. The first concerns the String
the second Špalíček
(1932) the third the Harpsichord Concerto
(1935) and the fourth the Tre ricercari
and Double Concerto (1938). The italics
are mine, emphasizing the most relevant
comments to the discussion at hand:
In Brussels at the
Beaux Arts a concert of chamber
music was offered to the participants
of the festival by the Pro Arte
Quartet. The program contained a
string quintet (two violins, two
violas and cello) by Martinů,
a young Czech
who is living in Paris;
a fresh and charming work
by a man of real talent. His personality
is perhaps not yet clearly defined
and the writing is at times too
facile, but it shows a natural
and spontaneous gift.
the beginning of the season there
was the premiere of Bohuslav Martinů’s
which the composer calls a ‘song
ballet in three acts and ten pictures.’
The emphasis is on ‘ballet’ for
the stage events are expressed only
by the dance, while groups of voices,
a women’s chorus and threes soloists--soprano,
tenor and bass--are placed in the
orchestra. They accompany, explain,
and enhance the dramatic presentation,
which is made up of fairy tales,
ballads, children’s games and legends.
The music is naturally appropriate
to the simple material, without
however renouncing its claim to
is a captivating
master of rhythm. His
dance pieces gain national character
from the use of Czech folk melodies.
The polytonality, the marked time
changes, the polyrhythms, and combination
of the instruments with the piano,
make this score noteworthy.
The songs have tonal richness; in
the remarkable a capella of the
women’s chorus, in the soloists’
songs and recitatives, and in the
antiphony of chorus and solos. But
Martinů’s personality does
not stand out, his
work is a composite of Bohemian
folk music, the early Stravinsky
and French impressionism.
The orchestra is large and effectively
used, but the score is not complicated.
This dance opera may be called the
most racially characteristic work
of the composer.
Concerto of Bohuslav
Martinů has the musical, and
especially rhythmic quality, that
one finds in all the deliberately
gauche and slyly correct works of
this Czech composer. I cannot see
that the harpsichord gains anything
by being subjected to these rigors,
or, for that
matter, that Martinů gains
anything by using the harpsichord.
Any plucked instrument would have
done the trick. In this respect,
one can see that Martinů has
remained a “modern” and cannot adapt
himself to any kind of classicism,
true or false, which demands
the use either of an ancient instrument
or of an ancient form. The Concerto
is, nevertheless, musically interesting:
the man is there, honest, candid,
and with a peasant-like freshness.
I know of few composers with such
rhythmic spontaneity, or
with such abundance without excess.
works by Martinů and Britten
were given premieres in both Geneva
and Basle on the same evening. Martinů,
closely bound to his country in
work and in feeling, emerges more
and more clearly as the heir of
the great Czech masters, Smetana,
Dvořák and Janáček.
His recent scores possess maturity
and power of expression and reveal
surprising progress. The Tre
Ricercari for chamber orchestra
which had its premiere at the Venice
biennial was broadcast by Ansermet
over the Swiss radio. The original
instrumentation (flute, two oboes,
two bassoons, and two trumpets,
two pianos and three groups of violins
and violoncellos) is matched by
the style of this splendid score,
which combines balance of construction
with dramatic force. Still more
important seemed the Concerto
for string orchestra, piano
and kettledrums (manuscript) written
for Paul Sacher and his orchestra
which recorded another success for
the composer in Basle.
As is evident from the
sampling above, reviewers outside Czechoslovakia
Martinů from a national perspective,
and an association with the perceived
peasant-like spontaneity of Dvořák
is also a very detectable subtext. Within
the same sphere is the critics’ emphasis
on Martinů’s approach to rhythm,
which the composer, jazz
notwithstanding, also ascribed to his
homeland with his declaration that "the
national music of Czechoslovakia is
rhythm - strong, vital rhythm."
As the reviewers above point out, even
in such works of absolute music as the
Harpsichord Concerto or Tre
ricercari, where the national element
is not so readily apparent, "Czechness"
can still be detected, sublimated into
the musical texture or syntax in some
way. This underlines the fact that although
two masks of Martinů the nationalist
and Martinů the cosmopolitan seem
clearly defined enough, the composer
was inclined to switch back and forth
within a single work or don both masks
at once. Again, the concepts of synthesis
and juxtaposition prove relevant.
Such complexes of styles and symbols
prove to be one of the more fascinating
aspects of the composer’s oeuvre, and
the resulting characteristics are aptly
summed up by André Coeuroy, who described
Martinů’s music as
primitive and rustic
(rude et paysanne), but always
well-constructed and searching to
solve problems in all domains…In
this abundance without weakness,
[there is] a personal language that
takes into account, without giving
allegiance to, Stravinsky and Schoenberg
and remains fresh through
contact with the Moravian folk tradition…
Opposite the morose and harsh art
of Alois Haba, Martinů makes
sparkle a supple, sinewy art that
always orients itself towards the
It is particularly interesting
that Shoenberg should be mentioned
within this context, for the one thing
Martinů and Schoenberg had in common
is also what set them upon opposite
creative paths: a profoundly nationalistic
trajectory towards compositional maturity
is in many ways a familiar one.
With Stravinsky palpably under the influence
of Rimsky-Korsakov before somehow "breaking
free" with Petrushka and
the Rite of Spring,
so it is with Martinů and, for
example Debussy; it is a fascinating
coincidence that for both Slavic composers,
Paris provided the ideal proving ground.
Coming onto the scene rather late and
in the wake of Stravinsky’s remarkable
successes, however, Martinů faced
a more complicated influence-sorting
task, with an array of progenitors (in
addition to Debussy and Stravinsky),
including Dvořák, Mahler, Smetana,
Strauss, and Suk.
uncertain response to the musical situation
in Prague in the teens and early twenties,
a confused period marked by critical
posturing, Nejedlian polemics and a
general lack of consensus, led
to a bewildering inconsistency of styles
in his music - polkas, sousedskás,
furiants, and other palpably
Czech items are interspersed with pieces
inspired on one hand by the romantic
ebullience of Strauss’ tone poems or
the subtle language of Pelléas
on the other. Indeed, the composer’s
works before Paris, while frequently
promising, ultimately pale in comparison
with the compositions they imitate.
Paris, however, Martinů manages
to turn this unpromising pluralistic
approach into an advantage, using folk,
impressionistic, and more avant-garde
elements in a convincing synthesis complemented
by the gradual emergence
of a distinctive musical voice, indeed
one of the most recognizable voices
of any composer in the twentieth century.
is clear that Martinů strove for
a balanced aesthetic, favoring moderation
of expression over extremism. His music
as a whole reflects a sort of reconciliation
between such opposite
poles as optimism and bleakness, grimness
and frivolity, tradition and the avant-garde.
as has been observed, much of the dynamic
quality of Martinů’s music derives
from its exploitation of seemingly conflicting
aesthetic goals. Elliott Carter echoed
these sentiments in his review of Martinů’s
Second Piano Concerto:
extreme musicality and freshness
of expression are directly winning
qualities. He does not always give
an impression of unity because he
juxtaposes all kinds
of music in one piece, even in one
movement. In this work he seemed
to be playing off Hindemith against
certain romantic composers, but
the effect is somehow natural and
Martinů’s place in history is
still a problematic subject, and the
Paris period has particular relevance
for a discussion of this issue. Judging
Martinů’s compositional legacy
has led to various pronouncements, from
Šafránek’s glowing prose to the following
more recent and decidedly reserved observation:
the tradition more than Stravinsky.
For him it was still a living tradition
and he doesn’t want to alienate
it. This makes him at once in some
ways a stronger composer in relation
to tradition than Stravinsky and
also a weaker one because he is
destroying the tradition much less
than Stravinsky does. This is one
of the problems with all composers
with music of the past - the extent
to which they use it and the extent
to which they subvert it when they
Charles Rosen’s statement
belies a prejudice
that seems to have dogged Martinů
criticism for some time. First of all,
it is debatable whether a more subversive
or destructive creative force is inherently
superior to one that is less so. One
is reminded of the so-called Futurist
music of that
period that now languishes in obscurity
despite its obviously subversive, destructive
elements. Even if siding with this post-modern
point of view, however, how does one
judge the degree of apparent subversion
in a composer’s works? Certainly Martinů
in Paris subjects
his beloved national symbols to all
kinds of "destructive" elements
in a fascinating twist on stereotypical
national expression. It is a hallmark
of his Paris style and emblematic of
his experimental approach. But as has
throughout this study, Martinů
was not content to merely parrot other
composers, or continue in a tried-and-true
national tradition, but rather boldly
set out on his own path.
Nonetheless the monikers
of "conservative" and "derivative"
are still attached
to the composer. It is as if the presence
of extended tonal passages proves Martinů’s
music is unadventurous or facile, or
that the composer’s typically dynamic
use of rhythm makes of him a lifelong
sycophant to Stravinsky. It is all perhaps
a matter of
perspective, even prejudice, but as
this study has attempted to demonstrate,
the solutions offered by Martinů
to the problems of his time were his
This leads, in closing,
to the issue of individuality. In composition
such a concept can of course be
discussed but never proven, being more
easily perceived than quantified. If
a person notes with relish that Martinů’s
music sounds like that of no other composer
and offers a unique aesthetic vision,
another individual might never get past
of the composer’s anxiety of influence.
In this regard, one writer’s observations
about Jean Cocteau could be applied
in spirit to Martinů as well:
It is sometimes charged against
him that he constantly impersonated
others, modeling himself on a series
of artists "greater" and
"more genuine" than himself,
notably Anna de Noailles, Apollinaire,
Gide, Stravinsky, and Picasso. What
he did was to use, very often, a
touch of "somebody else"
as an ingredient among other ingredients
in the fabrication of works of his
own; and persons who denigrate him
on this count might ask themselves
why a work by Cocteau, whatever
its "influences" or "reminiscences,"
is always strongly characteristically
Judging from the many
performances of his works and the innumerable
newspaper and journal articles devoted
to reviewing and assessing his compositions,
Martinů made a remarkable impact
on the musical scene in Paris, and by
extension, his homeland and the rest
of Europe. The fact that he emerged
even more quickly
a popular voice in America underscores
the significance of his earlier achievements.
In America the symbolic nature of Martinů’s
art became even more apparent, and as
a wartime refugee Martinů cultivated
motives from Svatý
and Julietta with renewed
vigor in a reflection of the tragedies
that had unfolded in his personal life,
his homeland, and the entire Western
world. Perhaps this simultaneity of
levels of significance is what ultimately
resonates in his oeuvre, for in Martinů’s
works not only is
the world in which he lived brought
vividly and panoramically to life, but
also the fascinating and complex personality
who experienced it.
MUSICAL WORKS CITED
Works by Martinů
Adagio. In Klavírní
Skladby. Prague: Panton, 1970.
La Bagarre. Paris: Alphonse
Leduc Editions Musicales, 1930.
a Soničce. [Božánek
Prague: Tempo, 1992.
Cello Concerto No. 1. Mainz:
B. Schott’s Söhne, 1931. Newly
revised edition, 1956.
Cinq pièces breves pour
violin et piano. Paris: Alphonse
Leduc Editions Musicales, 1930.
Concert pour trio (violon, violoncelle
et piano & orchestre à
cordes). Paris: Editions Max Eschig,
Concertino pour trio avec piano
et orchestre à cordes.
Prague: Melantrich, 1949.
Concertino for Piano and Orchestra.
Prague: Panton, 1967.
Concertino for Violoncello
and Orchestra. Reduction for violoncello
and piano. Prague: Panton, 1973.
Concerto da Camera per Violin
solo, Pianoforte, Timpani, Batteria
e orchestra d’archi. London: Universal
Concerto for Flute, Violin and
Orchestra. Kassel: Bärenreiter-Verlag,
Concerto Grosso. Vienna:
Universal Edition, 1948.
Le Départ. Prague:
Divadlo za branou. [Theater
Behind the Gate]. Suite. Prague:
Divertimento for Piano (Left
Hand) and Chamber Orchestra. Prague:
Divertimento (Serenata IV). Prague:
Editio Supraphon, 1954.
Double Concerto for Two String
Orchestras, Piano and Timpani.
London: Hawkes & Son, 1946.
Dumka (No. 1). In Drobné
Prague: Panton, 1974.
Dumka (No. 2). In Klavírní
skladby. Prague: Panton, 1970.
Dumka (No. 3). Paris: Editions
Max Eschig, 1970.
Duo concertant for Two Violins
and Orchestra. Kassel: Bärenreiter-Verlag,
Duo No. 1 for Violin and Violoncello.
Paris: La Sirène musicale,
Esquisses de danses. Mainz:
B. Schott’s Söhne, 1953.
La Fantaisie pour deux pianos.
Paris: Editions Max Eschig, 1969.
Fantaisie et toccata. New
York: Associated Music Publishers,
for Orchestra). Prague:
Český hudební fond, 1959.
Impromptu for Violin
Prague: Hudební matice, 1934.
Improvisation. In Les
Contemporains (troisième recueil).
Paris: Éditions Gérard
Instruktivní duo pro nervózní
(Instructive Duo for the Nervous).
In Drobné klavírní
skladby. Prague: Panton, 1974.
Intermezzo for Violin and Piano.
Prague: Edition Melantrich, 1937.
Inventions for Orchestra.
Prague: Melantrich, 1949.
[Julietta (A Dream Book)]. Prague:
Koleda Milostná. [Love
Carol]. Prague: Editio Supraphon,
Kytice. [Bouquet of Flowers].
Piano score by Karel Šolc. Prague:
Lístek do památníku.
[Album Leaf]. In Drobné
Prague: Panton, 1974.
Loutky. [Puppets]. Basel:
Bärenreiter Kassel, 1955 (by
Editio Supraphon, Prague).
Mazurka. London: Boosey &
Studánek. [Opening the
Wells]. Prague: Editio Supraphon,
Partita (Première Suite).
Mainz: B. Schott’s Söhne, 1932.
Piano Concerto No. 1. Reduction
for two pianos by Karel Šolc. Prague:
Piano Concerto No. 2. Reduction
for two pianos by Karel Šolc. Prague:
Piano Quintet (No. 1). Paris:
Editions Max Eschig, 1974.
[Field Mass]. Prague: Melantrich,
Prelude for Piano.
Compositions for Polička.
Prague: Editio Supraphon, 1973.
Quartet for Clarinet, French Horn,
Side Drum and Violoncello. Prague:
Quatre mouvements. Prague:
Editio Supraphon, 1978.
Quintette pour deux violins,
deux altos et un violoncelle.
Paris: La Sirène musicale,
Les Ritournelles. Mainz:
B. Schott’s Söhne, 1933.
Sept arabesques pour violoncelle
et piano ou violon et piano. Paris:
R. Deiss (Editions Salabert), 1932.
Serenade No. 3. Miami: Edwin
F. Kalmus & Co., reprinted by
Serenade for Chamber Orchestra.
Mainz: B. Schott’s Söhne, 1931.
Sextet for 2 Violins, 2 Violas,
2 ‘Cellos. New York: Associated
Music Publishers, 1948.
Sinfonia concertante for Two
Orchestras. Mainz: B. Schott’s
Sinfonietta giocosa. London:
Boosey & Hawkes Music Publishers
Skici; Hry. [Sketches; Games].
Prague: Panton, 1979.
Sonata for Flute, Violin and Piano.
Basel: Bärenreiter, 1959.
Sonata for Two Violins and Piano.
Prague: Panton, 1982.
Sonata for Violin and Piano (No.
1). Paris: Alphonse Leduc Editions
Sonata for Violin and Piano (No.
2). Paris: R. Deiss, 1932.
Sonata in D minor for Violin
and Piano. Prague: Panton, 1966.
Sonatina for Two Violins and
Piano. Paris: Alphonse Leduc Editions
String Quartet No. 2. Vienna:
Universal Edition, 1927.
String Quartet No. 3. Paris:
Alphonse Leduc et Cie, 1931.
String Quartet No. 5. Prague:
String Quartet with Orchestra.
Mainz: B. Schott’s Söhne,
String Trio No. 2. Paris:
Heugel & Cie, 1951.
Symphony No. 1. Prague: Editio
Tre Ricercari. London: Boosey
& Hawkes, 1939.
Trois danses tchèques.
Paris: Edition Max Eschig, 1929.
Trois Esquisses. Paris: Edition
Max Eschig, 1965.
Violin Concerto No. 1. Reduction
for violin and piano by Karel Šolc.
Prague: Editio Supraphon, 1984.
Violin Concerto No. 2. Prague:
Vzpoura. [The Revolt]. Reduction
for piano. Prague: Dilia, 1968.
Other Works Cited
Bach, J. S. Französische
Suiten. München: G. Henle
Debussy, Claude. Nocturnes.
In Three Great Orchestral Works
In Full Score. New York: Dover
for Violoncello and Orchestra, Opus
for violoncello and piano by the composer.
Prague: Editio Supraphon, 1987.
Gershwin, George. Rhapsody in
Blue. Original version for two
pianos, four hands. Secaucus, New
Jersey: WB Music Corp., 1924 (Renewed).
Koleda Milostná. [Love
Carol]. Prague: Editio Supraphon,
_______. Partita for Piano and
String Orchestra. Prague: Svoboda,
_______. Variations sur le carillon.
Paris: La Sirène musicale,
Ravel, Maurice. Sonate pour violin
et piano. Paris: Durand Edition
Stravinsky, Igor. Petrushka and
The Rite of Spring for Piano Four
Hands or Two Pianos. New York:
Dover Publications, 1990.
Suk, Josef. Meditace
na staročeský chorál “Svatý Václave”,
Opus 35. [Meditation
on the Old Czech Chorale "Svatý
Václave"]. Prague: Národní
Austin, William W. Music in the
20th Century. New York: W. W.
Norton & Company, 1966.
Baruch, Gerth-Wolfgang. "Tchécoslovaquie:
nouveautés à l’opéra
de Prague." La Revue musicale
18, no. 172 (February-March 1937):
_______. "Czech and other Novelties
in Prague." Modern Music 11,
no. 3 (March-April 1934): 153-156.
Beckerman, Michael. "In Search
of Czechness in Music." Nineteenth
Century Music 10, no. 1 (Summer
“The Master’s Little Joke: Antonín
Dvořák and the Mask of Nation.”
and His World.
Ed. Michael Beckerman. Princeton:
Princeton University Press, 1993:
Bernier, Olivier. Fireworks at
Dusk: Paris in the Thirties. Boston:
Little, Brown and Company, 1993.
Bertaut Jules. Paris: 1870-1935.
London: Eyre and Spottiswoode, 1936.
Blitzstein, Marc. "Popular Music
- An Invasion." Modern Music
10, no. 2 (January-February 1933):
Blom, Eric. "The Twentieth Century
Slump." Modern Music 10,
no. 3 (March-April 1933): 123-129.
Orchestra program notes.
December 14, 1927, 14-16 (Martinů’s
and December 14, 1928, 683-686 (Martinů’s
ed. Bohuslav Martinu Anno 1981:
Papers from an International Musicological
Conference, Prague, 26-28 May, 1981.
Prague: Česká hudební společnost,
Brody, Elaine. Paris: The Musical
Kaleidoscope: 1870-1925. New York:
George Braziller, 1987.
Carter, Elliott. "Stravinsky
and Other Moderns in 1940." Modern
Music 17, no. 3 (March-April 1940):
Blanka, et. al.,
Martinů: Biliografický katalog.
[Bohuslav Martinů: Bibliographic
John. “Martinů’s Instrumental
Music Review 24,
no. 2 (May 1963): 158-167.
Cocteau, Jean. A Call to Order.
Translated by by Rollo H. Myers. New
York: Henry Holt and Company, .
André. “Allegro symphonique, de Bohuslav
11, no. 104 (May 1930): 460-461.
_______. Dictionnaire critique
de la musique ancienne et moderne.
Paris: Payot, 1956.
_______. "Trio à cordes
de Martinů et autres musiques
tchèques d’aujourd’hui (troisième
Concert de ‘Triton’)." La
Revue musicale 16, no. 154 (March
Coeuroy, André and Rostard,
Claude. Les Chefs-d’oeuvre de la
musique de chambre. Paris: Editions
le bon plaisir, 1952.
Coeuroy, André and Schaeffner,
André. Le Jazz. Paris:
Edition Claude Aveline, 1926.
pour piano et orchestre, de Bohuslav
9, no. 5 (March 1, 1928): 150.
Copland, Aaron. "Jazz Structure
and Influence." Modern Music
4, no. 2 (January-February 1927):
_______. "The Lyricism of Milhaud."
Modern Music 6, no. 2 (July-August
Coppola, Piero. Dix-sept ans de
musique à Paris: 1922-1939.
Lausanne: Librairie F. Rouge et Cie
S. A., 1944.
Crespelle, J.-P. La Folle époque
des ballets russes au surréalisme.
Paris: Librairie Hachette, 1968.
Cronin, Vincent. Paris: City of
Light 1919-1939. London: HarperCollins
Demarquez, Suzanne. "Le clavecin...concerto
de Bohnslaw (sic)
Martinů.” La Revue
musicale 17, no. 63 (February
de Schloezer, Boris. "The Drift
of the Century." Modern Music
6, no. 1 (November 1928 - June
Duchesneau, Michel. L’avant-garde
musicale à Paris de 1871 à
1939. Sprimont: Mardaga, 1997.
Dumesnil, René. La Musique
en France entre les deux guerres:
1919-1939. Genève: Éditions
du milieu du monde, 1946.
_______. Portraits de musiciens
Français. Paris: Librairie
Einstein, Alfred. "Cycle of
Three Centuries." Modern Music
15, no. 3 (March-April 1938): 135-139.
_______. "National and Universal
Music." Modern Music 14,
no. 1 (November-December 1936): 3-11.
Erismann Guy. Martinů:
un musicien ŕ l’éveil
des sources. Arles: Actes Sud,
Evans, Edwin. "Albert Roussel."
The Chesterian 19 (1938): 97-102.
Ewen, David. The Book of Modern
Composers. New York: Alfred A.
Ferroud, Pierre-Octave. "A Great
of To-day: Bohuslav Martinů.”
The Chesterian 18 (1937):
Flanner, Janet. Paris Was Yesterday:
1925-1939. New York: Viking Press,
Frankenstein, Alfred V. "Washington
- Festival and Experiment." Modern
Music 10, no. 4 (May-June 1933):
Gatti, Guido. "La Biennale de
Venise." La Revue musicale
19, no. 186 (September-October 1938):
Golan, Romy. "Modes of Escape:
The Representation of Paris in the
Twenties." In The 1920s: Age
of the Metropolis. Edited by Jean
Clair, 336-377. Montreal: The Montreal
Museum of Fine Arts, 1991.
Goldbeck, Fr. "Concert
Münch: Pantins, d’Harsanyi et
Concerto pour violoncelle de Martinů.”
La Revue musicale
19, no. 181 (February 1938): 143-144.
Halbreich, Harry. Bohuslav
Martinů: Werkverzeichnis, Dokumentation
und Biographie. Zürich:
Hammond, Richard. "Viewing Les
Noces in 1929." Modern Music
6, no. 3: 19-25.
Harding, James. The Ox on the
Roof: Scenes from musical life in
Paris in the Twenties. London:
Michael. “The Case for and against
no. 2 (Winter 1994).
"Revue de cuisine, pour six instruments,
par Bohuslav Martinů (Concerts
de l’École Normale).” La
11, no. 105 (June 1930): 540-541.
_______. "Troisième quatuor
à cordes, par Bohuslav Martinů
(S.M.I.)." La Revue musicale
13, no. 127 (June 1932): 53.
Huth, Arno. "Dance of Death,
in Basle." Modern Music
17, no. 4 (May-June 1940): 246-250.
Jacobi, Frederick. "Liege, 1930."
Modern Music 8, no. 1 (November-December,
Klüver, Billy and Martin, Julie.
"Paris, the Artists’ City."
In The 1920s: Age of the Metropolis,
edited by Jean Clair, 378-391. Montreal:
The Montreal Museum of Fine Arts,
Martinů: Unaccompanied Choral
Music for Mixed Voices.” D.A. diss.,
University of Northern Colorado, 1997.
Large, Brian. Martinů.
New York: Holmes & Meier Publishers,
Lopatnikoff, Nikolai. "Independents
in Central Europe." Modern
Music 8, no. 4 (May-June 1931):
Lourie, Arthur. "The Crisis
in Form." Modern Music
8, no. 4 (May-June, 1931): 3-11.
[Martinů sends greetings home].
Prague: Hudební matice umĕlecké
Macek, Petr. Colloquium:
Bohuslav Martinů, His Pupils,
Friends and Contemporaries: Brno 1990.
Brno: Masarykova univerzita, 1993.
Henri. “Oeuvres nouvelles de Bohuslav
18, no. 176 (August-September 1937):
Bohuslav. "Artists are Citizens."
Modern Music 22, no. 1 (November-December
_______. "Cestou k Stravinskému."
[The Path Towards Stravinsky]. Tribuna
6, no. 153 (July 1924): 1-2.
“Dopisy: Připad ‘Half-time’.”
[Letters: The Case
of ‘Half-time’]. Listy hudební
matice 4, no. 5 (January 20, 1925):
_______. "Igor Stravinsky."
Listy hudební matice
4, no. 3 (November 20, 1924): 57-59.
“Ke kritice o současné hudbĕ.”
[On the Criticism of Modern Music].
no. 6 (February 20, 1925): 184-187.
_______. "1938-1945." Malá
knihovna tempa, vol. 2. Prague:
Hudební matice umĕlecké
“O současné hudbĕ.” [On
Modern Music]. Listy
hudební matice 4,
no. 9-10 (May 15, 1925): 268-273.
“O současné melodii.” [On Modern
hudební matice 5,
no. 5 (February 25, 1926): 164-166.
“Pařižské nábřeží.” [Parisian
Embankment]. New Yorské
Listy 69, no. 233 (October 28,
Revue musicale (November 1937):
Charlotte. My Life with Bohuslav
by Dr. Diderik C.D. DeJong. Prague:
Orbis Press Agency, 1978.
in America. Documentary
film. Prague: Czech Television, 2000.
Script by Aleš Březina and Jiří
McPhee, Colin. "New York’s Spring
Season, 1936." Modern Music
13, no. 4 (May-June 1936): 39-42.
Mihule, Jaroslav. Bohuslav
Martinů. Prague: Statní
Martinů. Prague: Orbis,
Martinů: Profil života a díla.
[Bohuslav Martinů: Profile of
His Life and Work]. Prague: Supraphon,
Lásky. [Strange Loves].
Prague: Mladá fronta, 1988.
Myers, Rollo. Modern French Music.
Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1971.
_______. "A Music Critic in
Paris in the Nineteen-Twenties: Some
Personal Recollections." The
Musical Quarterly 63, no. 4 (October
Nedbal, Miloslav. Bohuslav
Martinů. Prague: Panton,
Nettl, Paul. "Czechs at home
and far away." Modern Music
17, no. 3 (March-April 1940): 160-163.
Stanislav. “O Bohuslavu Martinů.”
[About Bohuslav Martinů]. Tempo,
hudební mĕsíčník v Praze,
18 (1946): 47-52.
Paige, Diane M. "Women
in the Operas of
Leoš Janáček.” Ph.D. diss., University
of California, Santa Barbara, 2000.
Parker, H. T. "Boston’s First
Times." Modern Music 10,
no. 4 (May-June 1933): 219-223.
Rudolf. Bohuslav Martinů.
Brno: Koncertní oddĕlení
[Martinů Essays]. Brno: Koncertní
Popelka, Iša, ed. Bohuslav
Martinů: Cesty, promĕny,
Martinů: Wanderings, Changes,
Returns]. Nový Jičín: Ministerstvo
Kultury ČSR, 1989.
_______, ed. Bohuslav
[Bohuslav Martinů: Letters Home].
Prague: Mladá fronta, 1996.
[Martinů and Polička]. Prague:
Porcile, François. La Belle
époque de la musique française:
1871-1940. Paris: Fayard, 1999.
Prunières, Henry. "Concert
de la revue musicale (11 mars 1938)."
La Revue musicale 19, no. 182
(March 1938): 219-220.
pour 2 violons, 2 altos et violoncelle,
par Bohuslav Martinů (Concert
10, no. 11 (December 1929): 173.
Sayer, Derek. The Coasts of Bohemia:
A Czech History. Princeton: Princeton
University Press, 1998.
Miloš. “Bohuslav Martinů.” The
29 (1943): 329-354.
_______, ed. Bohuslav
Martinů: Domov, hudba a svĕt.
Homeland, Music and the World]. Prague:
Statní hudební vydavatelství, 1966.
Martinů: His Life and Works.
Translated by Roberta Finlayson-Samsourová.
London: Allan Wingate, 1962.
Martinů: The Man and His Music.
New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1944.
[The Theater of Bohuslav Martinů].
Prague: Editio Supraphon, 1979.
Schaeffner, André . "Stravinsky’s
Two-Piano Concerto and other Parisian
Novelties." Modern Music 13,
no. 4 (May-June 1936), 35-39.
Seidel, Jan, compiler,
arranger, and harmonizer. Národ
v písni (The Nation in
L. Mazáč, 1941.
Shead, Richard. Music in the 1920s.
London: Duckworth, 1976.
Siegel, Jerrold. Bohemian Paris:
Culture, Politics, and the Boundaries
of Bourgeois Life, 1830-1930.
New York: Viking Penguin, 1986.
Jan. “A Key to Martinů’s ‘Julietta’.”
48, no. 10 (October 1997): 1162-1167.
Jana. Liner notes for Bohuslav Martinů,
by Jazz and Sport. Supraphon
compact disc SU 3058-2 011.
Steegmuller, Francis. "Jean
Cocteau." In Atlantic Brief
Lives: A Biographical Companion to
the Arts, edited by Louis Kronenberger,
161-170. Boston: Little, Brown and
Thomas D. “Martinů
on Music and Culture: a View from
his Parisian Criticism and 1940’s
Notes." Ph.D. diss.,
University of California, Santa Barbara,
Thompson, Oscar. "New Music
Heard Before Christmas." Modern
Music 5, no. 2 (1928): 33-36.
Thompson, Virgil. "Now in Paris."
Modern Music 10, no. 3 (March-April
_______. "Swing Music."
Modern Music 13, no. 4 (May-June,
Uher, Jindřich. Ona a Martinů.
[Martinů and Her]. Prague: Český
Vidal, Pierre. “‘Juliette’ de Bohuslav
Martinů.” Unpublished paper presented
at the International Bohuslav Martinů
Colloquium in Brno, October 1990.
Stanislava, translator. Libretto for
Bohuslav Martinů, Julietta.
Prague National Theater Chorus and
Orchestra. Jaroslav Krombholc. Supraphon
compact disc 10 8176-2.
Watkins, Glenn. Pyramids at the
Louvre: Music, Culture, and Collage
from Stravinsky to the Postmoderns.
Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Belknap
Press of Harvard University Press,
Weber, Eugen. The Hollow Years:
France in the 1930s. New York:
W. W. Norton & Company, 1994.
A New Beginning: Life In Paris
How Martinů "Got Rhythm"
Of Folk Tunes, Pastorals, and the Masses
Dvakrát Svatý Václave
(St. Wenceslas, Twice)
An Aspect of Minor/Major Significance
Fin de séjour: Julietta
and Musical Symbolism
Martinů’s Parisian Legacy
Gerard Hoffnung CDs
Donate and get a free CD
Follow us on Twitter