Thomas ARNE (1710–1778)
Artaxerxes (1762) [135.49]
Christopher Ainslie (counter-tenor) – Artaxerxes
Elizabeth Watts (soprano) – Mandane
Caitlin Hulcup (mezzo) – Arbaces
Andrew Staples (tenor) – Artabanes
Rebecca Bottone (soprano) – Semira
Daniel Norman (tenor) – Rimenes
The Classical Opera Company/Ian Page
rec. 18–21 November 2009, 2 April 2010, Air Studios, London
LINN CKD358 [66.08 + 69.41]
When Mozart composed serious operas he set Italian libretti by Metastasio and other well known librettists of opera seria. His three operas with Da Ponte are not strictly serious operas, they are billed as Opera Buffa/Dramma Giocosa but are supremely genre bending. Metastasian opera seria had a long life and was the supreme type of serious opera for many composers. So it is not surprising that when Thomas Arne came to write a serious opera for Covent Garden in 1762 he should set a libretto by Metastasio, albeit one translated into English. Metastasio’s Artaserse was originally written in 1729 and had been set by over ninety composers including Vinci, Gluck and J.C. Bach. Arne used his own translation, something which caused quite a bit of comment at the time but his text seems quite serviceable, albeit with one or two Gilbertian moments.
Arne’s Artaxerxes was first performed at Covent Garden with Charlotte Brent (Arne’s pupil and mistress) as Mandane, the London-based castrato Ferdinando Tenducci as Arbaces and castrato Nicolo Peretti as Artaxerxes (the title part, but by no means the biggest role). The main tenor role of Artabanes, the villain of the piece, was taken by John Beard who had followed his successful career as a tenor in Handelian opera and oratorio with a new roles as the manager of Covent Garden; Beard would have been 45 at the time the opera was first performed.
Artaxerxes was popular and remained in the Covent Garden repertory until the late 1830s but it then fell out of use (with one notable exception) until Ian Page and the Classical Opera Company revived it last year. The notable exception involved Joan Sutherland who recorded The soldier, tir’d of war’s alarms on her Art of the Prima donna set. Anyone who heard that stunning account of the aria must have been puzzled about the opera’s absence from disc. The problem was that in 1808, all the manuscript materials were destroyed in a fire at the Theatre Royal. Arne had published the arias, duets and ensembles (except for the finale), but there was no score of the complete opera. The later 19th century performances were in a version by Henry Bishop.
Luckily the complete libretto survived, so for the 2009 revival, Page re-composed the recitatives and commissioned Duncan Druce to create a new finale, It is this that has been recorded in the wake of the live performances at Covent Garden.
Artaserse is, frankly, not one of Metastasio’s best libretti. It requires a substantial suspension of disbelief when it comes to the character of the hero, Arbaces. But it was Arbaces’ very nobility which probably was the cause of the opera’s popularity. Eighteenth century audiences liked seeing princes being put through the wringer and displaying a profound nobility of characters in the most trying of unlikely circumstances.
In Artaxerxes, Artabanes (Andrew Staples) the general of the King’s forces is plotting against the Persian King Xerxes. Artabanes’ son Arbaces (Caitlin Hulcup) is in love with Xerxes’ daughter Princess Mandane (Elizabeth Watts), and has been banished for his temerity. Before he can leave the palace his father frames Arbaces for his own murder of Xerxes. Things are complicated by the fact that the new King, Artaxerxes, (Christopher Ainslie) is in love with Arbaces’ sister Semira (Rebecca Bottone). Much of the plot revolves around Arbaces nobly insisting that he is innocent but refusing to name the real culprit (his father). The dénouement involves a poisoned cup of wine, intended for Artaxerxes but which is given to Arbaces, prompting his father to confess all.
Within these limits the result is a remarkably fluent and dramatic opera. Arne keeps the pace going so that the entire opera, all three acts of it, lasts a bit over two hours even though it includes some 29 arias, duets and ensembles. Arne’s set-pieces are generally short, but they often require virtuoso skills. They never overstay their welcome.
Caitlin Hulcup is beautifully well modulated as the put-upon Arbaces, complete with a profoundly moving prison scene. It is Arbaces’ love, Mandane that gets the lion’s share of the virtuoso numbers and Elizabeth Watts dispatches these with charming brilliance. She is not quite the equal of Joan Sutherland in A soldier tir’d but in context makes the piece work brilliantly. Mandane is quite an interesting role as she lurches from loving to hating Arbaces and spends a lot of time being conflicted, thus giving Watts plenty of drama to work with.
Rebecca Bottone as Semira gets her own fair share of drama. Both women are strong characters with dramatic responses to the supposed guilt of Arbaces. If the casting has a weakness it is that the two sopranos have voices which are slightly too close in quality; something which exacerbates the feeling that the two troubled women merge into a single composite character.
Christopher Ainslie as Artaxerxes also has the disadvantage of having to be noble of bearing under pressure, something he does rather well. And his vocal timbre is nicely differentiated from the others.
The most interesting role is Arbanes and you can’t help but listen to Arne’s opera and wonder what Handel would have made of it. Perhaps the fact that the role was originally sung by the veteran tenor John Beard would have brought depth of character to the role. Here Andrew Staples sings admirably, but sounds young; the character fails to dig very deeply, though I am not sure whether this fault should be laid at Staples’ door, or Arne’s. I suspect the latter.
Daniel Norman gives admirable support as Rimenes and gets an aria in which both words and music seem to wander firmly into Gilbert and Sullivan territory!
Ian Page’s recitatives are serviceable without being striking, and they have the virtue of making the drama move on. As this recording came after a series of performances, the cast are all firmly in charge of the drama and the record make rather gripping - and sometimes - thrilling listening. The cast’s diction is uniformly excellent so that, though a complete libretto is provided, you never need to refer to it in order to follow the complexities of the plot. Duncan Druce’s finale concludes things in fine style.
The orchestra provides strong support and despatches Arne’s lively overture with élan. Arne writes for quite a big band, with horns, trumpets and timpani.
The booklet provides an informative background article, plot summary and full English text along with artist biographies and pictures from the 2009 production.
The Classical Opera Company’s 2009 revival of Artaxerxes was a remarkable discovery and this recording is far more than an interesting record of that event. It demonstrates that Arne had a winning combination of dramatic flair, virtuoso verve and a nicely gallant style. The opera isn’t perfect, but it deserves to be heard and repays repeated listening. Anyone with an interest in 18th century opera ought to try the disc. They won’t be disappointed.
A remarkable discovery. Arne had a winning combination of dramatic flair, virtuoso verve and a nicely gallant style. The opera isn’t perfect but it repays repeated listening.