Beatus Vir Op.38 (1979)
Symphony No. 2 'Copernican' Op.31 (1972)
Zofia Kilanowicz, soprano;
Andrzej Dobber, baritone
Polish National Radio Symphony Orchestra (Katowice) conducted by Antoni Wit
Polish Radio Choir; Silesian Philharmonic Choir
Rec. 18-19 Nov 2000
The Symphony No. 2 by Gorecki is a major work; of that there can be
no doubt whatsoever. The background to the composition was a commission from
the Kosciuszko Foundation in New York to produce a piece of music to celebrate
the half millennium of the great Polish astronomer Mikolaj Kopernik (1473-1543)
- better known to the world as Copernicus.
What resulted was a work that touched the heavens but is also deeply rooted
on earth. Gorecki uses a whole range of material to produce what can only
be regarded as a timeless masterpiece.
What was Copernicus' achievement? Quite simply he was the first person (in
modern times) to suggest that the world went round the sun. It is as simple
as that. But with this straightforward discovery he turned the entire scientific
and theological system upside down. It was the end of an era. Humankind was
no longer the centre of the universe. Gorecki himself wrote, '
nothing. Hence the duality of the two movement symphony; first the whole
mechanism, let us say, of the world, followed by contemplation.' And that
is exactly what the piece achieves.
The first movement opens with great clusters of sound; dense, mechanical
and violent. It seems to describe the mechanical lumbering of the universe
as it churns on its journey through time and space. There is a pause from
this fearsome construction. A gentler version of this material gives the
listener a respite from the opening pages. There are a number of digressions;
many with unusual sonorities, before the return of the first theme complete
with full choir.
The second movement makes use of soprano and baritone. Here the effect can
at times be almost operatic. They sing long phrases at two octaves apart.
But before this great song the baritone has to struggle to realise what the
importance of the Copernican revolution actually is. Here there are intimations
of the later 3rd symphony. The second movement closes with
what I think is the finest ending of almost any symphony. Time itself is
made to stand still. One is reminded of the effect of certain pieces by Messiaen
and the later school of minimalists. Yet there is a great beauty in these
closing pages. Simple yet exceedingly complex. There is no doubt in my mind
that the Symphony ends on an optimistic note. In spite of the great 'world
shattering' discovery of Copernicus, God is still the God 'who created the
heavens and the earth ... the sun to rule by day, the moon and stars to rule
by night'. So in some respects nothing has changed.
Antoni Wit and his forces handle this symphony admirably. The sound scheme
created by Gorecki straddles two worlds. The world of the Polish experimentalists
such as Penderecki and Lutoslawski and the new 'accessible' style first really
apparent in the pieces In Olden Style (1962). The soprano is radiant
and the baritone is able to infect the music with a sense of wonderment and
I was talking to a musical friend of mine the other day about this review
and she asked me if this Symphony would become as famous as the
3rd that was widely played on Classic FM. It had even reached
'number one' in the classical 'top ten'. I am not sure. I somehow doubt it.
The media caravan has probably moved on. However, I personally feel more
at home with this present symphony. I feel that at the end of the day, it
will be the 2nd Symphony that is regarded as the defining
masterpiece of Gorecki's career.
The coupling on this CD is the Beatus Vir that was composed to celebrate
the 900th anniversary of the martyrdom of the Bishop of Cracow.
The commission came from Karol Wojtyla, then Cardinal of Cracow but soon
to become Pope John Paul II. The work is dedicated to the Pope. There is
no doubt that this is an extremely accessible choral work; it would sound
stunning in any one of the great cathedrals of Europe. Beatus Vir are
words from the 33rd (Anglican 34th) Psalm - 'Blessed
is the man who trusts in Him.' The work is characterised by straightforward
melodic patterns and harmonies: lovely melodies that seem to be straight
out of the churches' ecclesiastical music books. The pages are truly beautiful
and perfect in every respect. Gorecki is a deeply religious man. He was brought
up during the Nazi holocaust and the Communist repression that followed yet
he retained his Catholicism. This tradition and this devotion shows tellingly
in this great work.
The sound quality of this CD is excellent - the soloists are superb and the
entire performance does credit to one of the world's great composers.