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HAYDN, (Franz) Joseph
b Rohrau, Austria, 31 March 1732
d Vienna, 31 May 1809, aged seventy-seven

He was the son of a wheelwright; there was no tradition of music in the family. He was admitted aged eight as a chorister at St Stephen's Cathedral in Vienna, staying until 1748, when his voice broke. Though in great poverty for a time, he continued to teach himself music. From 1759 to 1961 he was Musikdirektor to Count Morzin at Lucavec for a small salary. He made an unsuccessful marriage in 1760. In 1761 Prince Esterhazy employed Haydn as second Kapellmeister; he became sole Kapellmeister in 1766, remaining until 1790 in full employment with the wealthy Esterhazy family. He met Mozart in 1781/2, and each held the other in high esteem. In 1790 the Prince died, leaving Haydn a handsome pension; but Esterhazy's son dismissed the whole musical establishment, and Haydn moved to Vienna. There he was persuaded to visit England, which he did in 1791 with great success. Oxford University conferred on him an honorary doctorate of music. In 1792 he returned to Vienna via Bonn, where he met Beethoven, who from then until 1794 was his pupil. In 1794 he returned to England and continued to have remunerative success; but he was becoming infirm, and in 1798 he went back to Vienna, where he remained until he died. His great musical contributions were in the development of the symphony, and he was directly responsible for the establishment of the string quartet.

1755 (23)

String Quartets No 1-13

1756 (24)

Organ Concerto No 1 in C major

Piano Concerto in C major

1759 (27)

Symphony No 1 in D major

1760 (28)

Organ Concerto No 2 in C major

Symphony No 2 in C major (c1760)

c1761 (c29)

Symphony No 3 in G major

Symphony No 4 in D major

Symphony No 5 in A major

Symphony No 6 in D major, Le matin

Symphony No 7 in C major, Le midi

Symphony No 8 in G major, Le soir, ou la tempete

Symphony No 19 in D major

1762 (30)

Symphony No 9 in C major

before 1763 Symphony No 10 in D major

Symphony No 11 in Eb major

Piano Sonata No 3 in A major

1763 (31)

Symphony No 12 in E major

Symphony No 13 in D major

before 1764 Symphonies No 14 and 15

c1764 (c32)

Symphonies No 16-18

1764 (32)

Symphony No 22 in Eb major, Der Philosoph

1765 (33)

Symphony No 26 in D minor, Lamentations (c1765)

Symphony No 30 in C major, Alleluia

Symphony No 31 in D major, Horn Signal

String Quartets No 14-19

1766 (34)

Mass No 4 in Eb, Great Organ

Piano Sonatas No 4 7

Piano Sonatas No 8 12 (1766-7)

c1767 (c35)

Piano Sonatas No 13-16

1767 (35)

Piano Sonata No 17

before 1769 Violin Concerto in C major

Violin Concerto in G major

1769 (37)

String Quartets No 20-5

before 1770 Violin Concerto in D major

1770 (38)

Mass No5 in B flat, Little Organ or St John

after 1770 Piano Concerto in G major

before 1771 Piano Concerto in F major

Violin Concerto in A major

1771 (39)

String Quartets No 26-31

Piano Sonata No 18 in C minor before

1772 Symphony No 43 in Eb major, Mercury

Symphony No 44 in E minor, Trauersymphonie

1772 (40)

Symphony No 45 in F sharp minor, Farewell

Symphony No 46 in B major

Symphony No 47 in C major, Maria Teresa

Mass No 3, St Cecilia

String Quartets No 32-7, Sun or Great

Symphony No 52 in C minor (1772-4)

before 1773 Symphony No 49 in F minor, The Passion

1773 (41)

Violin Sonatas No 2-4 (without violin, Piano Sonatas No 22-4)

Piano Sonatas No 19-24

before 1774 Symphony No 53 in D major, The Imperial

1774 (42)

Symphony No 55 in E6 major, The Schoolmaster

before 1776 Symphony No 59 in A major, Feuersymphonie

1776 (44)

Symphony No 60 in C major, Il distratto

Piano Sonatas No 25-30

1777 (45)

Symphony No 63 in C major, La Roxolane

Piano Sonatas No 31 and 32 (1777-8)

1779 (47)

Symphony No 69 in C major, Laudon

Piano Sonatas No 33-7 (1779-80)

1781 (49)

Symphony No 73 in D major, La Chasse

Concerto No 2 for horn and strings

String Quartets No 38-43, Russian or Jungfern

1783 (51)

Cello Concerto in D major

before 1784 Piano Sonatas No 38-40

1784 (52)

Armida, opera

String Quartets No 44-50, dedicated to the King of Prussia (1784-7)

c1785 (c53)

Piano Sonata No 41 in A6 major

1785 (53)

Piano Sonata No 42 in G minor (1785-6)

Piano Sonata No 44 in Ab major (1785-6)

Symphony No 87 in A major (with Symphonies No 82-6 comprise the Paris symphonies)

1786 (54)

Symphony No 82 in C major, The Bear

Symphony No 83 in G minor, La Poule

Symphony No 84 in Eb major

c1786 (c54)

Symphony No 85 in Bb major, La Reine

Symphony No 86 in D major, The Miracle

1787 (55)

Symphony No 88 in G major

Symphony No 89 in F major

String Quartets No 51-7. The Seven Words, arranged for quartet

Piano Sonata No 45 in F major (1787-8)

1788 (56)

Symphony No 90 in C major

Symphony No 91 in Eb major

Symphony No 92 in G major, Oxford

Toy Symphony in C major, for two violins, double-bass, keyboard and toy trumpet, drum, rattle, triangle and bird-warblers

1789 (57)

String Quartets No 58 and 59

Piano Sonata No 46 in C major

Piano Sonata No 47 in E6 major (1789-90)

before 1790 Violin Sonata No 1

1790 (58)

Piano Sonata No 48 in C major (c1790)

Seven Nocturnes for the King of Naples

1791 (59)

Symphony No 93 in D major

Symphony No 94 in G major, Surprise

Symphony No 95 in C minor

Symphony No 96 in D major, Miracle

1792 (60)

Symphony No 97 in C major

Symphony No 98 in B6 major

The Storm, oratorio

before 1793 String Quartets No 6-9

1793 (61)

Symphony No 99 in E flat major

String Quartets No 70-5, dedicated to Count Apponyi

1794 (62)

Symphony No 100 in G major, Military

Symphony No 101 in D major, Clock

before 1795 Piano Sonata No 49 in D major

1795 (63)

Symphony No 102 in Bb major

Symphony No 103 in Eb major, Drum Roll

Symphony No 104 in D major

1796 (64)

Trumpet Concerto in Eb major

Mass No 9 in Bb, Heiligenmesse

Mass No 10 in C major, Paukenmesse

1797-8 (65)

The Creation, oratorio

String Quartets No 76-81

1798 (66)

Mass No 11 in D minor, Nelson or Imperial

Piano Sonata No 50 in Eb major

The Seasons, oratorio (1798-1801)

1799 (67)

String Quartets No 82-3

Mass No 12 in Bb major, Theresienmesse

1800 (68)

Te Deum

1803 (71)

String Quartet No 84

Haydn's last twelve symphonies are known as the Salomon symphonies. He also composed: 125 trios with barytone, more than twenty Italian and German operas, many songs, some in English.

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