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BEETHOVEN, Ludwig van
b Bonn, 15/16 December 1770
d Vienna, 25 March 1827, aged fifty-six

His father and grandfather were musicians. His parents were both alcoholics, and the family was very poor. As a result he had little general education, and found difficulty in expressing himself, which probably explains his subsequent boorishness in aristocratic company. He did, however, study piano, organ, violin and viola, and in 1784, aged fourteen, he was made assistant to his teacher as the court organist at Hanover. In 1787 he was sent to Vienna where he had some tuition from Mozart. He returned horn e after a short time because of his mother's death, and at nineteen was solely responsible for his drunken father and his two younger brothers. To make a living he taught, and played viola in the opera orchestra. In 1792 he returned to Vienna, studying with Haydn. Despite his manner he had a great number of aristocratic patrons, which eased his financial situation. After the age of thirty he suffered from a progressive loss of hearing, and by his mid-forties he was almost stone-deaf, and subject to various other ailments.
1780 (10)
Nine Variations on a March by Dressler, in C minor for piano, op 176
1781 (11)
'Schilderung eines Madchen', song, Op 229
1782-1802 (12-32)
Seven Bagatelles for piano, in Eb: C: F: A: C: D: Ab, Op 33
1783 (13)
Minuet in Eb for piano, Op 165
p Three Piano Sonatas, in Eb: Fm: D. Op 161 (composed very early)
1784 (14)
p 'An einem Säugling', song, Op 23()
p Rondo, allegretto in A major for piano, Op 164
1785 (15)
Piano Quartets No 1-3 in Eb: D: C, Op 152
Piano Trio No 9 in F sharp, Op l53
Prelude in F minor for piano, Op 166
1786 (16)
Trio in G major for piano, flute and bassoon, Op 259
1789 (19)
Two preludes through all twelve major keys, for piano or organ,
1790 (20)
'Musik zu einem Ritterballet', for orchestra, Op 149
Twenty-four Variations on Righini's air 'Venni amore', for piano Op 177
Cantata on the death of Emperor Joseph II, Op 196a
Cantata on the ascension of Leopold II 'Er schlummert', Op 196b
1791 (21)
Thirteen Variations on Dittersdorf's air 'Es war einmal', for piano Op 178
1792 (22)
Allegro and Menuetto in G major for two flutes, Op 258
]793 (23)
p Twelve Variations in F major on 'Se vuol ballare', for violin and piano, Op 156
1794 (24)
Trio for two oboes and English horn, Op 87
Rondo Allegro in G major for violin and piano, Op 155
p Variations in G major on a theme by Count von Waldenstein for piano (four hands), Op 159
1795 (25)
p Three Piano Trios, in Eb: G: Cm, Op 1
Piano Concerto No 2 in B flat, Op 19
'Adelaide', song, Op 46
p Twelve Deutsche Tanze, for orchestra, Op 140
Six Minuets for piano, Op 167
Six Allemandes for violin and piano, Op ]71
p Nine Variations on Paisiello's air 'Quant e piu bello', for piano, Op 179
Twelve Variations on Minuet from ballet Le Nozze disturbate, Op 181
'Der Freie Mann', song, Op 233
'Die Flamme lodert', opferlied, Op 234
'Seufer eines Ungeliebten' and 'Gegenliebe', songs, Op 254
1796 (26)
Twelve Variations on a Russian Dance from Wranizky's 'Waldmachen', Op 182
'Ah, perfido', scena and aria for soprano and orchestra, Op 65
p Six Variations on Paisiello's duet 'Nel cor piu', for piano, Op 180
'Farewell to Vienna's citizens', song, Op 231
1797 (27)
p Piano Sonatas No 1-3 in Fm: A: C, Op 2
p String Trio in Eb, Op 3
p String Quintet in Eb, Op 4
p Cello Sonatas No 1 and 2, Op 5
p Sonata in D for piano (four hands), Op 6
p Piano Sonata No 4 in Eb, Op 7
p Serenade in D for string trio, Op 8
Quintet for piano, oboe, clarinet, bassoon and horn, Op 16
p Rondo for piano, Op 51
p Twelve Variations in G on 'See, the conquering hero comes', for cello and piano, Op 157
War Song of the Austrians, for voices and piano, Op 232
Symphony in C, Jena (authenticity doubtful), Op 257
1798 (28)
p Three String Trios, in G: D: Cm, Op 9
p Piano Sonatas No 5-7, in Cm: r D, Op 10
p Trio in E flat for piano, clarinet (or violin)
and cello, Op 11
p Twelve Variations on 'Ein Madchen' for piano and cello, Op 66
p Twelve Minuets, Op 13
p Six Easy Variations in F on a Swiss air, for piano or harp, Op 183
p Eight Variations in C on Grétry's air 'Une fièvre brûlante', Op 184
1799 (29)
p Violin Sonatas No 1-3, Op 12
p Piano Sonata No 8 in Cm, Pathétique, Op 13
p Piano Sonatas No 9-10 in E: G, Op 14
p Seven Ländler Dances for piano in n, op 16
Ten Variations on Salieri's air 'La stessa, la stessissima', for piano, Op 185
p Seven Variations on Wonter's 'Kind, willst du', for piano, Op 186
Eight Variations on Süssmayer's Trio 'Tandeln und Scherzen', Op 187
'Der Wachtelschlag', song, Op 237
1800 (30)
Sonata for piano and horn (or violin), Op 17
String Quartets No 1-6 in F: G: D: C'm: A: B flat, Op 18
Septet in E flat, for violin, viola, horn, clarinet, bassoon, cello and double-bass, Op 20
Symphony No 1 in C major
Piano Sonata No 11 in B flat, Op 27
Sonata for piano, violin and viola, Op 23
Mount of Olives, oratorio, Op 85
Piano Concerto No 3 in C minor, Op 37
Air with Six Variations on 'Ich denke dein', for piano (four hands), Op 160
Six Very Easy Variations on an original theme for piano, Op 188
1801 (31)
p Piano Concerto No 1 in C, Op 15
p Violin Sonata No 5 in F, Spring Op 24
String Quintet in C, Op 29
fp The Creatures of Prometheus s (No 1-16)
ballet, Op 43
1802 (32)
p Serenade for flute, violin and viola, Op 25
p Piano Sonata No 12 in A flat, Op 26
p Piano Sonata No 13 in E flat, Sonata quasi una fantasia Op 27
p Piano Sonata No 14 in C sharp minor, Moonlight, Op 27
p Piano Sonata No 15 in D, Pastoral, Op 28
Violin Sonatas No 6-8 in A: Cm: G, Op 30
Six Variations in F on an original theme for piano, Op 32
Fifteen Variations with a fugue on d theme from 'Prometheus' for piano, Op 35
Symphony No 2 in D, Op 36
Violin Sonata No 9, Kreutzer, Op 47
Piano Sonatas No 16-18 in C: D: E flat, op 31 (1802 4)
Two Easy Sonatas (No 19-20)
in Gm: C for piano, Op 49
p Rondo for piano, Op 51
Terzetto, Tremate, for soprano, tenor and bass, op 116
Opferlied, Op 121b
p Seven Variations on 'Bei Mannern' for cello and piano, Op 158
p Six Ländler Dances in D (No 4 in D minor), Op 16
1802 (33)
Romance in G for violin and orchestra, Op 40
Six Songs for soprano, Op 48
Fidelio, opera (commenced 1803, last revision 1814), Op 72
p 'Das Gluck der Freundschaft', song, Op 88
p Twelve Kontretanze for orchestra, Op 141
p 'Zartliche Liebe', song, Op 235
p 'La Partenza', song, Op 236
Six Songs, Op 75 (1802-10)
1804 (34)
p Fourteen Variations in Eb for piano trio, Op 44
p Three Grand Marches, for piano (four hands), Op 45
Piano Sonata No 21, Waldstein, Op 53
Symphony No 3, Eroica, Op 55
Triple Concerto in C major for piano, violin, cello and orchestra, Op 56
Piano Sonata No 23 in F minor, Appassionata, Op 57
Andante favori in F, for piano, Op 170
p Seven Variations on 'God save the King', for piano, Op 189
p Five Variations on 'Rule, Britannia' for piano, Op 190
1805 (35)
p 'An die Hoffnung', song, Op 32
p Romance in F for violin and orchestra, Op 5
p Eight Songs, Op 52
Piano Concerto No 4 in G, Op 58
Symphony No 5 in C minor, Op 67
1806 (36)
p Piano Sonata No 22 in F, Op 54
Symphony No 4 in Bb, Op 60
Violin Concerto in D major (also same arranged for piano and orchestra), Op 61
Thirty-two Variations in C minor for piano, Op 191 (1806-7)
1807 (37)
Coriolanus, overture, Op 62
Mass in C major, Op 86
Leonore No 1 overture, Op 138
'In questa tomba oscura', arietta, Op 239
String Quartets No 7-9, Rassumovsky in F: Em: C, Op 59
1808 (38)
p 'Sehnsucht', songs with piano, Op 241
18n9 (39)
p Symphony No 6 in F, Pastoral, Op 68
p Cello Sonata No 3 in A, Op 69
p Trios No 4 5, for piano, violin and cello, Op 70
Piano Concerto No 5 in E7, Emperor, Op 73
String Quartet No 10 in E flat, Harp, Op 74
Military March in F, Op 145
p 'Als die Geliebt sich trennan wollt', song, Op 238
'Als mir hoch', song, Op 242
'Turteltaube', song, Op 255
1810 (40)
p Wind Sextet, Op 71 (early work)
p Six Variations in D for piano, Op 76
p Fantasy in G minor for piano, Op 77
p Piano Sonata No 24 in F sharp, Op 78
p Piano Sonata No 25 in G, Op 79
p Sextet in E flat, for two violins, viola, cello and two horns, Op 81b
p Three Songs for soprano and piano, Op 83
Egmont, incidental music, Op 84
String Quartet No 11 in Fm, Quartett serioso, Op 95
p 'Andenken', song, Op 240
p 'Welch ein wunderbares Leben', song, Op 243
p 'Der Fruhling entbluhet', song, Op 244
'Gedenke mein! Ich denke dein', song, Op 256
1811 (41)
p Choral Fantasia in C minor for piano, orchestra and chorus (theme Beethoven's song 'Gegenliebe'), Op 80
p Piano Sonata No 26 in E flat, Les Adieux, Op 81a
p Four Ariettas and Duet for soprano and tenor with piano, Op 82
Piano Trio No 6 in Bb, The Archduke, Op 97
The Ruins of Athens, overture and eight numbers, Op 113
King Stephen, overture and nine numbers, Op 117
'O dass ich dir', song, Op 247
1812 (42)
Symphony No 7 in A, Op 92
Symphony No 8 in F, Op 93
Violin Sonata No 10 in G, Op 96
Piano Trio No 10 in B flat, Op 154
1813 (43)
Wellington's Victory (or Battle of Vittoria), for orchestra, Op 91
Triumphal March in C for orchestra, Op 143
'Dort auf dem hohen Felsen', song, Op 248
1814 (44)
Polonaise in C, for piano, Op 89
Piano Sonata No 27 in E minor, Op 90
'Merkenstein', duet, Op 100
Overture in C, Namensfeier, Op 115
Elegiac Song, Op ] 18
Der glorreiche Augenblick, cantata, Op 136
p 'Germania', bass solo, Op 193
Leonore Prohaska, incidental music, Op 245
p Twenty-five Irish Songs, Op 223 (1814-16)
p Twenty Irish Songs, Op 224 (1814-16)
p Twelve Irish Songs, Op 225 (1814 -6)
1815 (45)
Cello Sonatas No 4-5 in C: D, Op 102
Calm Sea and Prosperous Voyage, for chorus and orchestra, Op 112
Three Duos for clarinet and bassoon, Op 147
p 'Es ist vollbracht', bass solo, Op 194
Twelve Songs of varied nationality, Op 228
'Wo bluht das Blumchen', song, Op 250
Twenty-five Scottish Songs for one and sometimes two voices and small orchestra, Op 108 (1815-16)
'Der stille Nacht', song, Op 246 (1815-16)
1816 (46)
'An die Hoffnung', song, Op 94
'Wenn ich ein Voglein war', song, Op 249
An die ferne Geliebte, song cycle, Op 98
p 'Der Mann von Wort', song, Op 99
Military March in D, Op 144
1817 (47)
p Piano Sonata No 28 in A, Op 101
String Quintet in Cm. (arranged from Op 1, No 3), Op 104
Fugue in D, Op 137
Song of the Monks, from 'William Tell', Op 197
p Twenty-six Welsh Songs, Op 226
'Nord oder Sud', song, Op 251
'Lisch aus, mein Licht', song, Op 252
Symphony No 9, Choral, Op 125 (1817 23)
1818 (48)
Missa Solemnis in D major, Op 123
'Ziemlich Lebhaft' in B flat for piano, Op 172
Six Very Easy Themes varied, for piano, flute or violin, Op 10 (1818-19)
Piano Sonata No 29 in B flat, Hammerklavier, Op 106 (1818-19)
Ten National Themes with Variations, for flute or violin and piano, Op 107 (1818-20)
1820 (50)
Piano Sonata No 30 in E, Op 109
Allegro con brio in C, for violin and orchestra, Op 148
'Wenn die Sonne nieder sinket', Song, Op 253
1821 (51)
Piano Sonata No 31 in Ab, Op 110
Bagatelles for piano, Op 119
1822 (52)
Consecration of the House, overture, Op 124
'The Kiss', arietta, Op 128
'Bundeslied', Op 122 (1822-3)
1823 (53)
Piano Sonata No 32 in C minor, Op 111
Bagatelles for piano, Op 126
Variations on a Waltz by Diabelli, Op 120
'Minuet of Congratulations', Op 142
Cantata in Eb, Op 199
1824 (54)
p The Ruins of Athens, march and chorus, Op 114
p Variations on 'Ich bin der Schneider Kakadu', Op 121a
String Quartet No 12 in Eb, Op 127
1825 (55)
Great Fugue in Bb for violins, viola and cello, Op 133
Rondo a capriccio in G, for piano, Op 129 (1825-6)
String Quartet No 13 in Bb, Scherzoso, Op 130 (1825-6)
1826 (56)
String Quartet No 14 in C sharp minor, Op 131
String Quartet No 15 in A minor, Op 132
String Quartet No 16 in F, Op 135
Andante maestoso in C major for piano, Op 174
Other works:
Op 38 Trio, arranged from Op 25
Op 41 Revision of Op 25
Op 42 Notturno in D, arranged from Op 8
Op 63 Arrangement of Op 4 for piano trio
Op 64 Arrangement of Op 3 for cello and piano
Op 134 Great Fugue in Bb for piano (four hands), arrangement of Op 133
Op 150 (MS)
Sonatina and Adagio in C minor, for mandolin and cembalo
Op 163 Two Sonatinas for piano (doubtful authenticity)
Op 173 Fur Elise in A minor, for piano
Op 195 (no details)
Op 198 'O Hoffnung', chorus (four bars), c1818
Op 201 (no details)
Ops 203 22 Canons and small incidental pieces
Op 247a Another setting of Op 247
Published posthumously:
1828 Op 119 Bagatelles for piano
1829 Op 151 Rondo in B flat for piano and orchestra
Op 146 Rondino in E flat (composed very early)
1830 Op 162 Piano Sonata in C, called 'Easy'
1831 Op 192 Eight Variations in E flat on 'Ich habe ein kleines Huttchen nur'
1834 Op 103 Octet in Eb, for two oboes, two clarinets, two horns, two bassoons (original of Op 4)
1836 Op 175 Ten Cadenzas to the piano concertos
1841 Op 227 Twelve Scottish Songs
1865 Op 200 Cantata in Eb, 'Graf, graf, lieber graf'

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